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Terms

Adaptive immune system
Specialized, specific cells that recognize and eliminate pathogens

Chronic kidney disease
The gradual loss of kidney function

Complement system
A component of the immune system that assists, or complements, the ability of antibodies to clear invading organisms

Dialysis
A treatment that rids the body of water, solutes, and toxins in people whose kidneys can no longer perform these functions

End-stage renal disease
The last stage of chronic kidney disease, or kidney failure

Endogenous retrovirus
A virus located within the genome

Genetic payload
A set of genes that is delivered to a cell to alter the DNA sequence

Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar, a symptom and complication of type 1 diabetes

Innate immune system
The body’s nonspecific, first line of defense in the immune response to pathogens

Islet cell
A type of pancreatic cell that produces insulin

Multiplex gene editing
Multiple simultaneous changes made to a DNA sequence

Single-cell cloning
A technique to separate and expand one cell into a genetically identical population of cells

Type 1 diabetes
An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks islet cells that produce insulin in the pancreas

Xenotransplantation
The transplantation of living organs, tissues, or cells from one species to another

References

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  • Bruni A, Gala-Lopez B, Pepper AR, Abualhassan NS, Shapiro AJ. Islet cell transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: recent advances and future challenges. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes Targets Ther. 2014;7:211-223. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S50789
  • Caplan AL. Finding a solution to the organ shortage. Can Med Assoc J. 2016;188 (16):1182-1183. doi:10.1503/cmaj.151260
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2019. Published March 13, 2019. Accessed January 20, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/kidneydisease/publications-resources/2019-national-facts.html
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2020. Estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. Updated August 2020. Accessed January 20, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics-report/index.html
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  • Health Resources and Services Administration and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network National Data. Accessed January 20, 2021. https://optn.transplant.hrsa.gov/data/view-data-reports/national-data/
  • Health Resources and Services Administration. Organ Donation Statistics. Updated September 2020. Accessed January 20, 2021. https://www.organdonor.gov/statistics-stories/statistics.html
  • Lu T, Yang B, Wang R, Qin C. Xenotransplantation: Current Status in Preclinical Research. Front Immunol. 2019;10. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.03060
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  • Nagasawa H, Sugita I, Tachi T, et al. The Relationship Between Dialysis Patients’ Quality of Life and Caregivers’ Quality of Life. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00770
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States. Accessed January 20, 2021. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/kidney-disease
  • Naylor KL, Kim SJ, McArthur E, Garg AX, McCallum MK, Knoll GA. Mortality in Incident Maintenance Dialysis Patients Versus Incident Solid Organ Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Cohort. Am J Kidney Dis. 2019;73 (6):765-776. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2018.12.011
  • Schuurman H-J. Regulatory aspects of clinical xenotransplantation. Int J Surg. 2015;23:312-321. doi:10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.09.051
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  • Thomas R, Kanso A, Sedor JR. Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Complications. Prim Care. 2008;35 (2):329-vii. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2008.01.008